Last Updated: Nov 28, 2022     Views: 61

Personal Communications

Personal communications include:

  • emails
  • phone conversations
  • text messages
  • personal interviews
  • social media messages

You do not include personal communications in your reference list. Instead parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(First initial. Last Name, personal communication, date)


  • (E. Roberts, personal communication, January 4, 2020)
  • Emily Roberts (personal communication, January 4, 2020) argued that "[insert quote here]."