Last Updated: Aug 23, 2022     Views: 293

Citing Personal Communications 

Personal communications include: emails, phone conversations, interviews, text messages, and social media messages. Personal communications are not listed on the Reference Page, but are included as an in-text citation.

Format: (A. Lastname, personal communication, date).

An in-text citation of a personal communication includes: the first and middle initials as well as the last name of the person cited along with the date of contact.


  • (P. Jones, personal communication, March 1, 2020).
  • According to B. Smith (personal communication, April 14, 2020), the year 1997 was “a cold year for the Ohio Valley."